LL-37: the antimicrobial peptide

Description of LL-37 LL-37 is an antimicrobial peptide of the cathelicidin family and is the first amphipathic alpha-helical peptide that was isolated in human cells. These tiny, cationic peptides (which are found in both humans and other species of animals) are stored within neutrophil granules and are released when they are needed as mature peptides […]

Epitalon: the anti-aging peptide


Epitalon is a peptide comprising a short chain of four amino acids and is used to help regulate the cell cycle through the upregulation of telomerase activity. Many animal and human studies have shown epitalon to have unique anti-aging and anti-tumor characteristics. It was first discovered by Professor Vladimir Khavinson (of Saint Petersburg University in […]

GHK-Cu: the tissue remodeling peptide


GHK-Cu is a copper complex that naturally occurs and was first found in the plasma of humans, but since then it has been identified in various places including both saliva and urine. Copper peptides occur in nature and are tiny fragments of protein with a big attraction for copper ions, which are very important in […]

Thymosin alpha 1: the immune modulator peptide

Thymosin alpha 1, also known as thymalfasin or Ta1 – and sold under the trademark Zadaxin, is a synthetic thymic polypeptide. It contains 28 amino acid residues that are N-terminally acetylated and it is proteolytically processed from prothymosin alpha. Goldstein and colleagues isolated this peptide in the 1970s from thymosin fraction 5, which is a […]